Adolf Eichmann and hunt for his assistant Alois Brunner.
Latest hand-picked WWII news. See also: Secret escape routes for Nazis, Pursuit of Nazis & Nazi Hunters, Aribert Heim: SS Doctor, Gestapo: Secret Police of Nazi Germany.
Classic turn-based strategy games: Conflict-Series
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The Daily Mail reveals identity of Eichmann`s 4 sons
One of the Nazi war criminal`s sons lives in Argentina, next to where his father was taken by the Mossad; according to the British newspaper, Eichmann`s two other sons set up a Nazi cell; `when (their father) was executed, Klaus and Horst became very angry and started attacking Jews,` says Horst`s former girlfriend.
Film Review: Operation Finale and the Popular Understanding of Adolf Eichmann
The story of the capture of Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires, in 1960, by Mossad agents, and Eichmann’s extradition to Israel, where he would stand trial the following year, is dramatized, in the style of a thriller, in Chris Weitz’s new film, “Operation Finale.” The movie separates fairly neatly into three parts: the action, the backstory, and the didactic element. They mesh throughout the film, but they each provide distinctive emotions and elicit different ideas; they might as well be different films.
Israel releases letter written by Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann 2 days before his execution
A letter written by SS Colonel Adolf Eichmann in which he requests clemency two days before his execution has been released. Eichmann, who was executed in 1962 for his role in the Holocaust, wrote the letter to President Yitzhak Ben-Zvi following his war crimes trial. In the letter Eichmann refused to admit any guilt: `In their evaluation of my personality, the judges have made a significant error, since they cannot put themselves in the time and situation I was in during the war years. I never served at a rank so high that it could have been involved in such decisive and independent powers. I never gave any order in my own name, but rather always acted on orders."
Previously secret documents reveal Adolf Eichmann was secretly visited by wife in Israeli prison
Adolf Eichmann the Nazi war criminal who was one of the key planners of the Holocaust was visited by his wife in Israeli prison, shortly before he was executed in 1962, previously secret historical documents have revealed. The SS lieutenant colonel was visited by his wife Vera in Ramle Prison near Tel Aviv, according to a visitors` log, which was recently released. The official state documents show that Vera Eichmann visited her husband on April 30 for roughly 90 minutes. At the time Eichmann was awaiting an appeal to Israel`s Supreme Court for clemency. It was rejected on May 29 and two days later he was hanged.
Eichmann Before Jerusalem: The Unexamined Life of a Mass Murderer
Eichmann Before Jerusalem: The Unexamined Life of a Mass Murderer is the new English translation of Bettina Stangneth`s exhaustive history of the life of Adolf Eichmann. Her book is essential reading for anyone who wishes to try to understand Adolf Eichmann, the Nazi lieutenant colonel who was responsible for the logistics of the Holocaust.
Germany continues to keep Eichmann records secret after court ruling
Germany`s foreign intelligence agency can keep secret some of its records on Adolf Eichmann, a court ruled. The federal administrative court ruled that the intelligence agency was within its rights to black out passages from the files sought by a journalist attempting to shed light on whether West German authorities knew in the 1950s where Eichmann had fled after the war. In 2006, the CIA released documents showing that it wrote to its West German counterpart in 1958, saying it had information that Eichmann "is reported to have lived in Argentina under the alias `Clemens` since 1952".
Exclusive Interview of Mossad agent Rafael Eitan: How Adolf Eichmann Was Caught
It was back in 1960 that Adolf Eichmann, one of the top Nazi leaders and architects of the Final Solution to exterminate the Jewish people was caught in Argentina. The commander of the secret mission was Rafael Eitan. Israel National Radio`s Walter`s World conducted an exclusive interview with Eitan as part of a special broadcast on Israel`s Mossad and secret service.
Eichmann in Israel: 16 rare photos of a Nazi war criminal in prison
Adolf Eichmann in Israel: 16 rare photos of a Nazi war criminal in prison.
Spy agency Mossad opens its archive into legendary capture of Adolf Eichmann
Lifting a half-century veil of secrecy, Israel`s Mossad spy agency is opening its archive to reveal the story behind the legendary 1960 capture of Adolf Eichmann. The `Operation Finale` exhibit displays never before seen items, names and documents that led to Eichmann being snatched in Argentina. Among the highlights of the exhibit at the Beit Hatfutsot museum of the Jewish people in Tel Aviv are the original Mossad file on Eichmann, code named `Dybbuk`, the briefcase with a concealed camera that took the first pictures of Eichmann, the fake licence plates the agents made for vehicles to track Eichmann, the gloves used to nab him, the needle used to sedate him and the forged passport his captors used to smuggle him out of Argentina.
Artifacts chronicling capture of Eichmann by Mossad agents to be displayed for first time in a mobile exhibit
A new mobile exhibit chronicling the abduction of Nazi criminal Adolf Eichmann will soon go on the road, displaying items collected by the Mossad. The artifacts, many of which were never shown to the public, have been on display at the Mossad headquarters. The show includes equipment used by the Mossad agents during the operation, the blindfold that kept the war criminal in the dark while his captors took him to a temporary hideaway, the fake ID that was manufactured to fly him out of Argentina and the keys to his Buenos Aires home. The spies` fake IDs and the original verdict condemning Eichmann will be also on display, as well as photos chronicling the kidnapping.
Germany threatened to end arms deals with Israel if Eichmann trial reflected badly on the Nazis who had senior role in West Germany
Konrad Adenauer, the German chancellor, personally sent a spy to Israel to influence the trial of Adolf Eichmann because he feared it would implicate Nazis who had senior roles in the government of post-war Germany. A German foreign ministry official said that Germany had to demonstrate that only a "small group of individuals" had carried out the Holocaust and that those who "were not directly involved could not have had any knowledge of it." Of particular concern was Hans Globke, the director of the federal chancellery and one of Adenauer`s closest aides. Once an official in Hitler`s interior ministry, Globke had contributed to the Nuremberg Laws that targeted Jews.
Adolf Eichmann wanted to return to Germany to tell the young people of Germany what really happened under Hitler
In 1956, Adolf Eichmann wrote an open letter to the West German chancellor, Konrad Adenauer."It is time to relinquish my anonymity and introduce myself," wrote Eichmann, who was living under the alias Ricardo Klement in Buenos Aires. "Name: Adolf Otto Eichmann. Occupation: SS Obersturmbannführer a. D." The letter was supposed to be published by an Argentinian company with Nazi sympathies, but it never saw the light of day. It was discovered from German state archives by historian Dr Bettina Stangneth, author of "Eichmann Before Jerusalem". In the letter Eichmann suggests he should be allowed home to tell the young people what really happened under Hitler.
Germany sought to bribe judge during Eichmann trial to prevent future Nazi prosecutions
The West German administration of Konrad Adenauer, Germany`s first post-Holocaust Chancellor (during 1961-62), considered issuing payments to an Israeli judge presiding over the Eichmann trial to prevent future Nazi prosecutions, especially against high-ranking Nazis, according to a newly released document from the archives of Germany`s Federal Intelligence Service (BND).
Two articles about Eichmann on Der Spiegel: Eichmann`s life in Argentina, On the trail of Holocaust organizer
A Nazi War Criminal`s Life in Argentina
Before his arrest by Israel`s Mossad intelligence service, Adolf Eichmann boasted openly of the war crimes he had committed. He told one journalist that his only mistake was not having killed all the Jews: "We didn`t do our work correctly."
On the Trail of Holocaust Organizer Adolf Eichmann
Following the collapse of the Third Reich, Eichmann found refuge in a village in northern Germany before travelling to Argentina. Documents unknown until now show that he could have been captured earlier than he was, if West Germany had been interested.
Deborah Lipstadt`s new book challenges Hannah Arendt`s views on the Eichmann Trial
In 1961 Hannah Arendt covered the Eichmann trial for the New Yorker and published her views in "Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil." She made several critical judgments about the trial, the wartime role of Jewish Councils and Eichmann`s motives. Now, 50 years later, historian Deborah Lipstadt challenges Arendt`s views in her latest book "The Eichmann Trial".
One of the controversial issues Lipstadt tackles is the role of the Jewish Councils (Judenrats) - which helped the Nazis compile lists of Jews to be deported - by arguing Arendt overemphasized the part they had. Be that as it may, the Councils took a lot of heat: During the testimony of a Hungarian Jewish Council member, Pinchas Freudinger, a spectator began shouting and accused Freudinger of being responsible for the death of his family.
New facts about Eichmann trial: Healthy looking Holocaust survivor was not allowed to testify
A special conference at the Massuah Institute for the Study of the Holocaust in Tel Yitzhak, marking the 50-year anniversary of the Eichmann trial, has revealed new facts about the case.
The prosecution team decided not to call a survivor to testify because of his healthy appearance might have had an unwanted effect, so they called up people who looked more "suitable" for the role of Holocaust survivor.
Gabriel Bach, who was the prosecuting attorney in the trial of Adolf Eichmann, revealed that a psychiatric evaluation conducted on the Nazi leader suggested that he had ambivalent sexual tendencies.
Germany refuses to unlock intelligence agency file on Adolf Eichmann
The recent discovery of Adolf Eichmann related files in the archives of the West German intelligence agency (BND) have, as expected, sparked calls for releasing these files. German authorities, however, have turned down these requests, explaining that some secret-service files dealing with Eichmann must remain secret.
The Second World War may have took place 70 years ago, but Governments sure are slow to unburden themselves of their shady deals. There are two ways to understand the current German stand: Either they want to showcase their lack of flexibility and co-operation, or, they may actually have been in contact with Eichmann for one reason or the other. One has to remember that German authorities did business with Klaus Barbie, a Nazi refugee in similar position.
BND archives reveal that American and German intelligence services knew where Eichmann was hiding
Files of the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) reveal officials knew that Adolf Eichmann was hiding under the alias of Ricardo Klement in Argentina. "SS colonel EICHMANN ... is residing in Argentina under the fake name CLEMENS. E`s address is known to the editor of the German newspaper Der Weg in Argentina," says information on a BND index card dated 1952. Critics think the mastermind of the Nazi Holocaust was not captured to protect both German officials and pro-Nazi clergy in the Vatican who had helped him to escape.
Report from Eichmann`s prison - Newspaper clippings from Nov. 28, 1960, Lost Angeles Mirror
On November 28, 1960, journalist Paul Coates reported from Tel Aviv on the secret prison where Adolf Eichmann was being held: "The Gestapo butcher who engineered the coolly scientific slaughter of 6 million Jews, will be tried for his incredible crimes by the kinsmen of his victims in March."
Eichmann (film review)
In a canon of Nazi films ranging from the fictional Inglourious Basterds to the fact-based Downfall, director Robert Young`s Eichmann skews toward the latter. The film is based on the transcripts of an interrogation between Adolf Eichmann and Avner W. Less, the Israeli police captain charged with interviewing him for a final confession before the 1961 trial. "Eichmann" covers 3 stories: the interview, the outrage that ensued over Eichmann given the chance to respond to accusations, and the flashbacks showing him as a key strategist of "the Jewish Question" and enabler of "the Final Solution."
Coffee with Ricardo Eichmann, son of SS obersturmfuhrer Adolf Eichmann
For years, Ricardo Francisco Eichmann has distanced himself from the annals of history. In order to lead a normal life under the name "Eichmann", he concentrates on archaeological excavations of different, much earlier periods. "There are experts who can speak about WWII much better than me, what do I have to add?" he asks, each time he turns down interview requests. Ricardo explains it would have been much easier on his family if Adolf Eichmann had expressed remorse over his actions - and how he cannot comprehend the "following orders" argument that his father used to excuse his actions.
Adolf Eichmann`s abductors dispel some myths about the operation
On the evening of May 11, 1960, Ricardo Klement was late arriving home to the San Fernando suburb of Buenos Aires. The seven men in two black American cars who were waiting for Klement grew tense. They were determined to put an end to his life. For they were sure that Ricardo Klement was SS officer Adolf Eichmann, one of the planners of the "Final Solution." The seven men in the ambush - 6 of them from the Shin Bet security service (not the Mossad) and a physician - began to think that their timing was off. The team consisted of Rafi Eitan, Zvi Aharoni, Peter Zvi Malkin, Moshe Tavor, Avraham Shalom, Yaakov Gat.
German court orders Adolf Eichmann files released
A German court has found no legal basis for keeping the files on Adolf Eichmann secret, while Chancellor Angela Merkel`s office argues the files could hinder Germany`s foreign policy. "After examining the files, the Federal Administrative Court has decided that the decision of the chancellor`s office to block them is unlawful," the court stated. The 3,400-pages about the Nazi architect of the Holocaust were compiled during the 1950s and 1960s.
Hunting Eichmann by Neal Bascomb [book review]
In the chaos following the fall of the Third Reich in 1945, SS Lt.-Col. Adolf Eichmann disappeared. By the time he was id`ed as the architect of "final solution," he was gone, some thought never to be seen again. It wasn`t until 1960 that Mossad agents discovered him, living under a false id in a suburb of Buenos Aires. The story, told in "Hunting Eichmann", remains one of the most amazing successes in the history of espionage and contributed to the Mossad`s reputation as one of the world`s most effective intelligence agencies. The book reveals that the CIA knew Eichmann`s whereabouts.
Adolf Eichmann - Just following orders?
On April 11, 1961, the trial of Adolf Eichmann began. The Eichmann of the trial - carefully set up and broadcast all over the world - symbolized a threat to Jewish lives which necessitated the strong Israeli state. Reporter Hannah Arendt saw things differently: Her Eichmann represented the capacity for individuals to adjust blindly to the orders of the state. Stanley Milgram planned a test to answer the question: Could it be that Eichmann was just following orders?" He found that nearly all of his subjects were willing to deliver fatal electrical shocks to strangers when ordered to do so by an authority figure.
Protected by Adolf Eichmann: Over 800 Jews in Nazi Berlin survived the war
The Red Army soldiers fighting their way through the Berlin in 1945 turned the corner of Iranische Strasse, and came across an elegant building. The Russians looted the place, and as they burst open cellar doors they came upon hundreds of figures. The soldiers swept through in an orgy of rape. Only when the commanders get there was the question asked: "But who are you?" "We are Jews," was the reply to the amazed Russians. --- The place was run by a Jewish doctor Walter Lustig, under direct Nazi control. His boss was a Gestapo officer Fritz Wöhrn, appointed by Adolf Eichmann, head of department 1V B4 of the Reich Security Head Office (RSHA).
Argentina uncovers Adolf Eichmann passport - aka "Ricardo Klement"
A student has found the passport used by Adolf Eichmann to enter Argentina. The passport, under the name of Ricardo Klement, was issued by the Red Cross in Genoa and stamped by the Argentine consul general in the city. The student found the passport among court documents while searching Eichmann`s capture in 1960 by the Israeli secret service. Eichmann was captured a couple of time after WWII but managed to escape allied forces, and in 1950 he arrived in Argentina which provided a safe haven for many Nazis. The passport contains a photograph of a balding man who is dressed in a shirt and jacket, and bears a fingerprint in red ink.
Adolf Eichmann search was ended just after 17 months by Britain
The National Archives files about Adolf Eichmann show that at the time the decision was made, Adolf Eichmann was hiding in the British-controlled zone of Germany. A Major Cooper wrote: "An exhaustive search had been carried out, but the only indication of his fate was he may have committed suicide." Eichmann`s biographer David Cesarani said: "There could not have been a safer place for Eichmann to have been than in the British zone because at that point the British police field intelligence had struck him off their list of wanted men." The British Crimes Unit was small and its priority was to track down Nazis related to atrocities against British servicemen.
Adolf Eichmann film under way - Confessions of the SS officer
Adolf Eichmann, the key administrator of the Nazis` "Final Solution", is to be the subject of a film "Eichmann." It will be based on the confessions of the SS officer who was in charge of the logistics of mass deportation and death camps. After world war II, he escaped to Buenos Aires, where he was kidnapped by Mossad agents in 1960. The biopic will be based on his cross-examination by Captain Avner Less, with flashbacks to the 1940s. The title role will be portrayed by Thomas Kretschmann, a man who has had his share of WWII characters - He played an SS officer stuck in Hitler`s bunker in Downfall.
CIA knew where Eichmann was: US releases documents
The CIA knew the whereabouts of the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Argentina more than two years before his capture by Mossad agents, but kept the fact secret to protect its anti-Communist efforts. The documents, among 27,000 pages of CIA records released, indicate that the agency was told in 1958 by then West German intelligence that Eichmann was living under an alias in the Buenos Aires. But the CIA did nothing. In the case of Eichmann, the documents show the CIA was desperate not to compromise Hans Globke, a former Nazi who stayed on in West Germany and helped organise anti-Communist initiatives.
Becoming Eichmann: The life, crimes, trial of "Desk Murderer"
At his trial in 1961, Adolf Eichmann was portrayed as a genocidal monster. This picture was consistent with the common view of Nazis at the time: they were the embodiment of evil. But Hannah Arendt saw something else. Eichmann, responsible for transporting millions to the death camps, was essentially a bureaucrat, with little more on his mind than pleasing his superiors. He was neither fanatical nor bloodthirsty, in fact he had never directly killed anyone. He made trains run on time. "Anyone writing on the subject today works in the shadow of Arendt," David Cesarani observes in "Becoming Eichmann," the first full biography to appear since the 1960`s.
Former Mossad agent Eitan recalls Eichmann capture (Article no longer available from the original source)
It was the appendectomy scar that gave the Holocaust mastermind away. After grabbing Adolf Eichmann in Argentina in 1960, former Mossad agent Rafi Eitan was only certain he had the right man when he rubbed the fugitive Nazi leader`s stomach and felt the scar. Eichmann, who was in charge of implementing the Nazi extermination plans, was captured in 1960 and put on trial - executed two years later. Eitan recounted holding Eichmann`s head in his lap after snatching him from his hideout and bundling him into a waiting car. Eichmann was told in German not to talk or he would be harmed. Eichmann answered "jawohl."
The trial of Adolf Eichmann
Eichmann slipped into court this morning, out of the mystery and legend of his imprisonment, almost unnoticed. Heaven knows, the courtroom was ready for him. There sat the five lawyers of the prosecution, mostly youngish men, with a saturnine bearded procurator, elegant in his skullcap at the end of the line. There sat Dr Servatius, the German defence counsel, earnest in discussion with his young assistant. "Are you Adolf Eichmann?" asked the president of the court: and we heard him answer, via microphones and wires out of his glass insulation. "Yes sir," he said, and the trial began.
Israeli agent who caught Adolf Eichmann dies at 77
Peter Malkin, the Israeli agent who snatched Adolf Eichmann, the architect of the Holocaust, from the streets of Buenos Aires and took him to face trial in Israel, has died. Three years after the end of the WW2, Israel pledged to hunt down the Nazis responsible for the deaths of almost 6 million Jews. Heading the newly formed state`s most-wanted list was Eichmann, Hitler`s foremost expert on Jewish matters and the man who oversaw the Final Solution.
The life and crimes of the Adolf Eichmann - Book
The trial of Adolf Eichmann made him the global face of the Holocaust. But his exact role in the atrocities remained buried by courtroom rhetoric, sloppy reporting or overly ideological analysis. To some, he was a classic Nazi: a depraved, criminal, socially inadequate über bully. Others saw a bureaucrat made into a mass murderer by totalitarianism, who counted Jews instead of beans. This gripping, lucid, meticulously researched book reveals that both views are wrong. After a hard day in his Berlin office organising mass deportations in 1943, the handsome, charming, popular SS officer would go to musical soirees with his staff.
Adolf Eichmann: The Mind of a War Criminal
Eichmann combined commerce with activism in the Austrian SS until 1933, when the party was outlawed and Kaltenbrunner arranged for him to travel to Germany. He spent some time at an SS training centre before he was posted to Dachau concentration camp. From there he joined the SD, the Nazi Party Security Service. While rabble-rousers like Joseph Goebbels railed against the Jews, the SD quietly promoted Jewish emigration. To this end Eichmann contacted Zionist envoys and made a visit to Palestine in 1937. In Oct 1939 he was appointed to Department IV D 4 of the Gestapo. Eichmann even defied his chief, Himmler, who at the end of 1944 finally commanded the killing to stop.
French court gives Nazi Alois Brunner life sentence in absentia
Nazi war criminal Alois Brunner, who sent tens of thousands of Jews to their deaths, has been sentenced by a French court to life imprisonment. The court, following the example of earlier French verdicts in war crimes cases in 1953 and 1954, reached its decision soon after the accusations against him were read out. Tried in absentia, Brunner was right-hand man to the Gestapo`s "technician of death" Adolf Eichmann. It is not known whether he is alive or dead. He was in charge of the Drancy camp outside Paris where Jews rounded up in France were held before being sent to Nazi death camps. An estimated 345 children were among Brunner`s victims.
CIA Surprised by Adolf Eichmann Capture in 1960
The CIA was surprised by Israeli agents` capture of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Argentina in 1960, and a subsequent CIA file review uncovered extensive ties between Eichmann and men who served as CIA assets and allies (like Franz Alfred Six and Otto Von Bolschwing), according to the CIA`s three-volume Directorate of Operations file and their Directorate of Intelligence file on Eichmann, posted by the National Security Archive. Obersturmbannführer (Lt. Col.) Eichmann was originally a member of the SD (Sicherheitsdienst or Security Service), and went on to head Gestapo Section IV B4 (responsible for Jewish affairs) where he helped plan and implement the Holocaust.
(National Security Archive)
The Capture of Adolf Eichmann by Mossad
In 1934 Adolf Eichmann was appointed to the Jewish section of the "security services" of the SS. From then on he became deeply involved with the formulation and operation of the "final solution to the Jewish question". He drew up the idea of deportation of Jews into ghettos, and went about concentrating Jews in isolated areas with murderous efficiency. A number of the top Nazis were captured after the war and tried at Nuremberg. Many escaped. Many, too, were sought out by members of the Jewish Brigade of the British Army. They also organized themselves into a group dedicated to tracking down Nazis. They called themselves the "Nokmim" - the Avengers.
Adolf Eichmann`s Nazi documents discovered
A report from Germany says thousands of documents belonging to one of the most notorious Nazi war criminals, Adolf Eichmann, have been discovered in state archives. The report, in Der Spiegel magazine said the documents, which date from Eichmann`s time in Austria in 1938, were captured by the Soviet Union at the end of the war and handed to East Germany in the Nineteen-Fifties.
Israel opened its archives to release Adolf Eichmann`s diary
Israel opened its archives to release the 670-page prison journal of the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, which had lain unpublished for almost 40 years. Eichmann became an SS lieutenant colonel and the chief of the Jewish Office of the Gestapo during the WWII. He was kidnapped in Argentina by Mossad, and taken to Israel where he was convicted of war crimes and hanged in 1962. The record shows that he was the logistical mastermind behind the nazi policy to exterminate Jews. But his prison journal tells a different story. He portrays himself as a "cog in the machine", forced to witness the killing of Jews which, he says, disgusted him.