Kristallnacht: The Night of Broken Glass was pogrom the nazis organized against Jews.
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What the Nazis stole from synagogues during the November 1938 pogrom
While Nazi troops stormed and burned synagogues during the Kristallnacht pogrom on November 9, 1938, German museum directors were waiting in the wings, eager to acquire Jewish cultural artifacts for their collections.
Ruth Winkelmann: The girl who witnessed Kristallnacht
Eighty years ago the Nazis' persecution of the Jews suddenly turned violent in a night of mayhem. This and the next day are known as Kristallnacht, the night of broken glass - and there are still some who remember it vividly.
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Tragic Aftermath of American Mustard Gas Experiments in World War II
During World War II, the U.S. military conducted secret chemical weapons experiments on approximately 4,000 American soldiers. Though the program was declassified in 1993, an ongoing investigation by NPR's Caitlin Dickerson has revealed that the Department of Veteran Affairs only located and offered compensation to 610 victims. Now, NPR had released its own comprehensive, searchable database of the 3,900 veterans who were exposed to mustard gas and other chemical weapons, in an attempt to track down uncompensated survivors and their families.
After Kristallnacht: An infamous press conference "justifies" terror 1938
The night of November 9-10, 1938, that came to be known as Kristallnacht ('Night of Broken Glass') remains one of the most shocking eruptions of violence, outside of wartime, that Europe has ever seen. In the course of several hours, as German paramilitary thugs and more than a few non-Jewish citizens rampaged through cities in Germany and Austria, destroying Jewish-owned stores, torching synagogues and killing scores of innocents, the world was given its most graphic glimpse yet of the true, depraved nature of Hitler's Reich. The very next day, in fact, on November 11, 1938, both Hitler and his propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, appeared at a press conference in Munich characterizing the Kristallnacht pogrom as an understandable, 'spontaneous' eruption of Teutonic anger against Jews.
The Night of Broken Glass: Eyewitness Accounts of Kristallnacht (book review)
"The Night of Broken Glass" - edited by Uta Gerhardt and Thomas Karlauf - includes a collection of 21 eyewitness accounts by Jews of the terrible night of 9 November 1938, when, on the orders of Adolf Hitler and his propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, bands of stormtroopers all over Germany and Austria burned down 1,000 synagogues and smashed up 7,500 Jewish-owned shops. The testimonies recount a wide variety of experiences. For Hugo Moses, a former bank official, the behaviour of the drunken mob of stormtroopers who broke into his apartment overturning his furniture and smashing his pictures, while an SS man held a loaded revolver to his head, contrasted with the policemen who came to inspect the damage and told him apologetically: "It's a disgrace to see all this."
The Good Nazis who saved a Berlin synagogue on Kristallnacht
On November 9-10, 1939, while synagogues across Third Reich were burning and Jews and their property became victims of pogroms, a strange sight took place in Berlin. German police raced to 25 Mintz Street, where they used their bodies as shields to protect the synagogue housing the yeshiva headed by Rabbi Avraham Kuperstock from rioters seeking to harm the rabbi, his family, students or property. The synagogue was saved thanks to the assistance Kuperstock gave German authorities during the Second World War. But his tale begins much earlier, in 1914 Warsaw, when the city was under Soviet control.
Kristallnacht - When good men did nothing
On November 9-10, 1938, Nazi storm troopers all around Germany and Austria looted Jewish stores, set fire to synagogues and attacked Jewish persons. In the end 96 Jews were dead, 1,300 synagogues and 7,500 businesses ruined, and 30,000 Jews sent to Nazi camps. After Kristallnacht, a member of the Hitler Youth said: "no German old enough to walk could ever plead ignorance of the persecution of the Jews, and no Jews could harbor any delusion that Hitler wanted Germany anything but judenrein, clean of Jews." Many Americans would also claim they were unaware of the Nazi atrocities, in spite of the fact that the events of November 9-10 were well documented.
Kristallnacht: I asked for help. The police asked if it was a Jewish house, then left us to the mob
The 17-year-old boy's father was in custody, his mother had a nervous breakdown and the family had been made homeless as all around them houses were plundered by Nazi Storm Troopers and Nazi sympathisers. His pleas for help are among a raft of previously unpublished eye witness accounts of the horrors of Kristallnacht released by the Wiener Library in London. Over the course of a single night between November 9-10, 1938, 92 Jews were killed and up to 30,000 arrested. The terror of their victims is recorded in detail in the 300 transcipts collected by Dr Alfred Wiener, of which 10 have been translated and released.
The night the Nazis came: One survivor who fled to Britain recalls Kristallnacht
The banging on the door shattered the quiet of our apartment in a Berlin suburb. I accompanied my mother to the door. Two men pushed past us, bluntly announced "Gestapo" and stormed into the hall. Gestapo. I'd never heard that word before. After all, I was just 11 years old. Until then I had been safe, protected and loved by my parents. Now I was afraid. The Gestapo officers shouted: "We've come to take him away! Where is he?" My mother held her ground. "How dare you! My husband is a hero of WWI. He was awarded the Iron Cross First Class. And we are Germans and proud of it."
Recollections of Kristallnacht - Life in the Nazi Germany in 1939
In my family, we were Germans before Jews, very much so. We never imagined that the Germans would turn on us. On 9 Nov. 1938, following the shooting of Ernst vom Rath at the German Embassy in Paris, Joseph Goebbels made a speech on the radio: "Tonight, the Jews will suffer for this tremendous crime that has been committed and we will see how they like it." We didn't take much notice. There was persecution, but we didn't have anywhere else to go. This was our home. That evening, we went to bed normally and at 11.30pm there was a knock at the door. It was the SS. We were marched to the town square in nightclothes.
Hitler led henchmen in Kristallnacht riots, newly deciphered Goebbels diary passages show
Adolf Hitler marched his henchmen onto the streets of Munich to perpetrate Kristallnact, deciphered passages from the diaries of Josef Goebbels show. A German scholar has uncovered evidence that on the night of Nov 9 the Führer led Nazis to destroy an important synagogue, on purpose throwing a match into a tinderbox. Historian Angela Hermann has deciphered a mysterious passage in the diary of Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels that had baffled scholars ever since this section of Goebbels' diaries was retrieved from Moscow in 1992. The riddle focused on Goebbels' puzzling reference to "Hitler's Stosstrupp", or Hitler's "special troops".
Kristallnacht remnants site discovered near Berlin
A huge dumping base for the destroyed remains of Jewish property ransacked during Kristallnacht has been discovered in Brandenburg, north of Berlin, by a journalist. The site contains an array of personal and ceremonial items looted during nationwide riots (directed by the nazis) against Jewish property and places of worship on November 9 1938. It is thought the items were moved by rail to the outskirts of the village and dumped on assigned land. Yaron Svoray said it was a happy coincidence that he had stumbled across the items so close to the 70th anniversary of the pogrom, also known as the Night of Broken Glass.
Speaker recalls Kristallnacht, return to Nazi Germany in U.S. army
In 1933 Adolf Hitler took power in Germany. Two months later Fritz Ottenheimer's father heard broadcasting: "Don't buy from Jewish stores. Buy from German stores." A stormtrooper stood at the door of his store. The elder Ottenheimer retrieved the medals he earned during WW1 and the townspeople came to his defense - the stormtrooper left. But without customers, the store eventually closed. Fritz was rocked from his bed on Nov. 10, 1938, by the sounds of explosion. It was the day after Kristallnacht, "The Night of Broken Glass." He find the synagogue ablaze. The elder Ottenheimer was taken to a camp. He was released, as were others who survived encampments of 1-6 months.
Kristallnacht: The world was silent (Article no longer available from the original source)
Sept 1938. Neville Chamberlain returns after the Munich Conference with Adolf Hitler and claims to have brought about "Peace in our time!" Officially, Kristallnacht on Nov 9, 1938, followed the killing of Ernst von Rath: a spontaneous response of angry Germans - But in reality local authorities had compiled lists of addresses months before. The Manchester Guardian, the most consistent voice for decency in a world which "kept quiet," wrote of a "total brutal expulsion" that was only the beginning. For germans Kristallnacht proved that the Nazi regime was willing to use any means necessary to carry out its racial aims.