Sports during World War II - Athletes, games and stories.
Latest hand-picked WWII news.
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What we think we know about 1936 Berlin Olympics is wrong
Owens` victories also fueled another misconception — that Hitler stalked out of the Olympics rather than have to shake the hand of someone the Nazis regarded as a racial inferior. It never happened. Except in one instance, Hitler didn`t congratulate any of the games` victors, German or foreign. The story of him storming out of the stadium is based on the self-serving testimony of the leader of the Nazi youth movement, Baldur von Schirach, at the Nuremberg trials a decade later. While the world press heralded Owens` performance, in a telling commentary on the racism in the United States at the time, his photograph did not appear in any newspaper throughout the American South. Hitler, in fact, behaved properly throughout the Olympics. After the opening ceremony staged with typical Nazi arrogance, where he marched around the stadium to great cheers, Hitler attended the most significant athletic events but tended to stay in the background.
Documentary Hitler`s Olympics takes a look back at the most controversial Olympics of all time
Hitler`s Olympics, a documentary by Daniel Kontur, profiles the 1936 summer Olympic games, which were hosted in Berlin under Hitler`s regime. The film, which is now available on Netflix, discusses the temporary pause on the persecution against Jewish people in order for The Olympics to take place. This was a necessary concession for Hitler and the rest of the Nazis as The United States nearly pulled their involvement from the games, which would have resulted in the cancelation of The Olympics. Originally, Hitler was against hosting The Olympics — because they promoted international goodwill, of which he was not interested — but was persuaded into hosting when advised on the opportunity for Nazi propaganda.
Salamo Arouch survived Holocaust by boxing for the entertainment of Nazi officers
Salamo Arouch was a Jewish Greek boxer, the Middleweight Champion of Greece (1938) and the All-Balkins Middleweight Champion (1939), who survived the Holocaust by boxing (over 200 bouts) for the entertainment of Nazi officers in Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
Hitler`s forgotten attempt to build the world`s largest Olympic stadium
On September 7, 1937, German construction workers laid the cornerstone for what was to become the world`s largest stadium - one that would hold over 400,000 spectators. Designed by Albert Speer, the monumental structure drew as much inspiration from the Greek Panathenaic Stadium of Athens as it did from Hitler`s megalomania. But in the end, it was simply not meant to be, a project cut short by the demands of WWII and the demise of the Third Reich. During the groundbreaking ceremony, Hitler unveiled a 2-meter high model of the Deutsches Stadion ("German Stadium") to an excited crowd of 24,000 people. He described it as "words of stone" that were to be stronger than anything that could ever be spoken.
The Nazis and soccer: Last champions of the Third Reich
Helmut Schön could feel it in the summer air. All of Germany could. As the 28-year-old soccer star donned the red shirt and black shorts of the Dresden Sporting Club he had played for since he was 17 years old, pincers continued to close around his country. While Schön laced up his leather boots in the bowels of Berlin`s Olympic Stadium on the afternoon of Sunday June 18, 1944, Nazi Germany was on the defensive. The final defeat inched nearer. Schön and his teammates, in Berlin to contest the final of the 1944 national soccer championship, didn`t know the specific details of the battles but they understood that war was approaching Berlin. The notion of defeat had begun to take hold a year earlier when Propaganda Minister Goebbels asked his fellow countrymen to commit to "total war," a sign of growing desperation. By the summer of 1944, Germany`s citizens understood they were in for a defensive struggle, the outcome of which did not look positive.
Olympic Gold Medalists Who Lost Their Lives in World War II
U.S. Olympians Who Died In World War II: The most famous was General George S. Patton, Jr., who led American troops to victory in African and European campaigns, earned his gold in the 1912 Pentathlon Equestrian event in Stockholm. --- The Japanese Gold Medalist Who Died On Iwo Jima: Takeichi Nishi won an equestrian gold medal at the 1932 Olympics in Los Angeles. Japanese Army Colonel Nishi was killed in combat on Iwo Jima in World War II. --- Gold Medalists Who Perished In WWII Prisons: Four Hungarians who won Olympic gold in fencing died in World War II German concentration camps in 1944.
How the Adolf Hitler golf trophy found its way to Hesketh Golf Club
Golf made its last appearance at the 1936 Olympics held in Berlin when Hitler`s regime attempted to hijack the event for their own propaganda purposes. Carl Diem, Secretary General of the Organising Committee, devised the idea of the Torch Relay from Greece to the Olympic venue. The Germans also thought a golf event would give them a platform for scoring another publicity coup – only to be undone by a Yorkshireman and his teammate from Hesketh Golf Club in Southport. Now the club has been able to restore its connection to a strange golfing story by purchasing the Hitler Trophy at an auction in Chester.
The untold story of Poland`s secret World War II soccer leagues
Leszek Rylski, 92, leans forward in his chair and with his forefinger traces the names on a list of footballers: "Zbikowski, a defender, shot. The Izydorzaks, strikers, both died in the camps. Ostrowski, a striker, died in the Warsaw Uprising." As Poland brace to kick off Euro 2012, there`s an extra edge for Rylski, who remembers how playing football brought hope during the dark days of WWII. The story of those played in secret WWII leagues across the country is little known in Poland, let alone abroad. "It was an escape from the harsh reality of daily life. It was a way to create an illusion of normality. It was also an act of protest against the German occupation. It was dangerous, but we felt satisfaction because it showed us that despite the terror, we were still here."
Death Match: Why a Nazi-era soccer movie is making Ukraine angry
The Nazi officers stroll down Kiev`s main boulevard through cheering crowds and accept the welcoming gift of bread and salt offered by women in Ukrainian national dress. A man in the crowd nods approvingly: "There will be order." This is one of many scenes in a WW2 soccer film that have riled Ukrainians as their country prepares to co-host the European Championship. The film, Match, which was made in Russia, tells the story of a soccer game organized in Kiev in 1942 against the backdrop of the Nazi occupation of Ukraine. A team of locals beats a team comprised of Germans - and some of the players are later killed for refusing to throw the match.
Olympic flame relay was designed to further Hitler`s nationalist propaganda
Hitler hadn`t wanted to host the Olympics. They were a celebration of the internationalism and multiculturalism he loathed. But he loved propaganda, the lavish shows of German power and prestige, and by 1934 Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels had convinced him of the Olympics` value in the greater Nazi mission. Few aspects of the highly political 1936 games exemplified Nazi propaganda mission better than the Olympic torch relay and ceremony. Though portrayed as ancient tradition, the event was in fact a Nazi invention, one typical of the Reich`s love of flashy ceremonies and historical allusions to the old empires.
SS recommended yoga to death camp guards as a good way to de-stress
A German historian has discovered how the SS in Nazi Germany recommended its members practice yoga to enrich their "mind, bodies and spirits." The first ever book exploring the Third Reich`s fascination with the ancient discipline was published recently, entitled "Yoga In National Socialism" by Mathias Tietke. It shows how S.S. leader Heinrich Himmler was fascinated with the discipline. Jakob Wilhelm Hauer, an S.S. captain and yoga expert, influenced Himmler and convinced him that "yoga can internally arm us and prepare us for the forthcoming battles."
The forgotten story of football, farce and fascism at the 1936 Olympics
Italy`s gold medal at the 1936 Olympics was won after a tournament filled with controversial victories and Nazi bullying.
A new book explores Nazi-era mountaineering (German Alpine climbing association was an early supporter of Nazi ideology)
Hitler was no mountaineer, but the Nazis were well aware of the propaganda value of the sport, as a new book published in Austria shows. "Berg Heil! Alpenverein und Bergsteigen 1919-1945" ("Hail the Mountain! The Alpine Club and Mountaineering 1919-1945") deals with the "dark chapter" of scaling Austrian and German peaks under the Nazis. Until the "annexation" of Austria in 1938, the German Alpine climbing association "was the only significant organisation where the idea of a `greater Germany` became reality." Jews were excluded from climbing clubs as early as the 1920s, and the Nazis promoted mountaineering as a healthy pastime and as a way for the "master race" to demonstrate "Ayran" superiority and train for the coming war.
Therese Blondeau recalls Hitler by the side of a pool watching the French swimmers train before the 1936 Berlin Olympics
97-year-old Therese Blondeau still recalls Adolf Hitler by the side of a pool watching the French swimmers train before the 1936 Berlin Olympics, where Germany won a record 89 medals while the United States had to settle with 56.
"He came almost every day, in his uniform and surrounded by his bodyguards. He moved into the gallery and spent a long time assessing us, to see our fitness and whether we would beat the Germans. It was real spying but it didn`t really bother me."
Louis Zamperini crashed, spent 47 days on life raft, killed shark with screwdriver and was tortured during WWII
Unbroken, by Laura Hillenbrand, tells the story of Louis Zamperini, a promising runner, who in 1940 was closing in on a world record in the mile when the WWII began. Instead of the 1940 Olympic Games in Tokyo he ended up in the U.S. Army Air Corps. On May 27, 1943 his plane crashed in the open ocean near the equator. After living on a life raft for 47 days, during which Zamperini killed a shark with with a screwdriver, the crew ended up in a Japanese POW camp near Tokyo, where they were tortured relentlessly.
Olympic torch from the 1936 Nazi Olympics fetches $28,000 in Czech auction
A torch used in the first Olympic torch relay for the 1936 Olympics in Nazi Germany has been auctioned in the Czech Republic for $28,100. The auction was set up by a court in Karlovy Vary because the torch`s owner was in debt. An expert commissioned by the court confirmed the authenticity of the torch and estimated that the strange piece of Olympic memorabilia is worth about $840. The torch relay was used for the first time during the 1936 Berlin Games. The event was used by Adolf Hitler to promote the Nazi propaganda and show off the Third Reich.
German football under the Third Reich
In Nazi Germany most sports associations were disbanded or replaced by Nazi-sponsored organisations. The DFB was absorbed into the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (DRA, Reich Committee for Physical Education). Under Reichssportsführer Hans von Tschammer und Osten sports groups became departments of a new organisation which replaced the DRA — Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen (DRL, later NSRL or Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen). 1933-1945 football was organised into 16 Gaue, in the Gauliga - dominated by FC Schalke 04. To join a club, a player needed recommendations from 2 non-Marxists.
Trautmann`s Journey: From Hitler Youth to FA Cup Legend (book review)
In the 1956 Wembley Cup Final, Manchester City goalkeeper Bert Trautmann broke his neck but played on, inspiring his team to a 3-1 win. Many British fans remember him as a gentle giant who never hurt a fly - a good German captured early in the war. Too bad that none of it is true. His father was a member of the Nazi Party, and Trautmann joined the Hitler Youth as early as possible, volunteering for the Luftwaffe at 17. He saw combat as a paratrooper on the Eastern Front, earning the Iron Cross medal. In the POW camp Trautmann was classified as "black" - an enthusiastic supporter of the Nazi regime.
German-Jewish athlete re-awarded 1936 high jump record erased by Nazis
The German track and field association has honoured Gretel Bergmann for a 5ft 3in high jump she made in Stuttgart in June, 1936 - a record that was deleted from the history books by the Nazis. She moved to Britain from Germany in 1933 to find better training, becoming the British high jump champion in 1937. Noticing her success and perhaps fearing she might compete for Britain, the Nazis demanded she return to Germany. However, as soon as the Nazis were sure the United States was not going to boycott the Olympics, it dropped her from the team and erased any trace of her record. "I know I would have won the gold. The madder I got, the better I did."
Berlin 36 reveals how Nazis replaced Jewish woman athlete for man in drag
She showered alone, shaved her legs several times a day and had a deep voice. Why? Because the Nazis replaced a star Jewish high jumper before the Berlin 1936 Olympics with a man. The film "Berlin 36" tells the story of Gretel Bergmann, who was heading for an Olympic gold medal before she was kicked out of the Nazi squad. The Nazis wanted to make sure that they would not be embarrassed by a Jew winning a gold medal for Third Reich. Her replacement was Dora Ratjen (in reality a man called Horst Ratjen), who only gained 4th place. Two years later he set a new world high jump record for women, but was disqualified after an examination him.
German sports reporter claims that Adolf Hitler, Jesse Owens shook hands
It is the greatest sporting snub in history: Adolf Hitler stormed out of the Olympic Stadium in Berlin after Germany was embarrassed by a black man. The moment was 1936 and Jesse Owens had just won the first of his 4 gold medals. Hitler, who had shaken hands with the German Olympic winners, left the stadium angry that his Ayran supermen had been beaten by their racial inferior. But sports reporter Siegfried Mischner claims that, though Hitler left the stadium, it was not before shaking Owens` hand. Mischner says that Owens carried a photo in his wallet of the Fuehrer doing just that. Owens later said he was treated better in Nazi Germany than in segregated America.
In Holland football was an escape route from Nazi occupation and world war
The Dutch Resistance Museum is hosting an exhibit (The `40-`45 season) on the football competition that continued during the war. Thousands of Dutch people joined soccer clubs 1940-1945 when the country was ruled by the Nazi Germany. The stadiums were filled - despite the air raids and round-ups. "I did not notice much of the war," footballer Jan Soeurt of the Volewijckers admitted. The fact that clubs were losing their Jewish players was not always seen as such a problem. There was no organised resistance in the sport world. "At that time sport was a kind of escape. It was actually a way of sticking your head in the sand," Jaap van der Lack explained.
Jewish boxer Salamo Arouch fought for his life in Auschwitz
Salamo Arouch, a Jewish boxer who survived the Auschwitz death camp by fighting fellow captives in bloody battles staged by their Nazi guards and who returned decades later as a consultant on a film about his captivity, has passed away. His harrowing series of win-or-die fights during the last two years of WW2 was immortalised in 1989 in "Triumph of the Spirit," the first major movie filmed at Auschwitz. The film, along with Arouch`s postwar speeches, became his legacy. The rules were simple: "We fought until one went down or they were sick of watching. They wouldn`t leave until they saw blood. The losers would be badly weakened. And the Nazis shot the weak."
When Baseball Went to War by Todd Anton -- Book review
Few people link baseball with espionage, bloody battles and America`s fight for freedom in World War II. But a book co-edited by history teacher Todd Anton and his colleague Bill Nowlin reveals the bravery of American baseball players who left the bullpen for the battlefield. The baseball heroes in the book include master spy Morris "Moe" Berg. Called "the brainiest man in baseball," he left baseball to join the forerunner to the CIA, the Office of Strategic Services. The first professional ball player to enlist in WWII was Bob Feller, who signed up for combat duty with the U.S. Navy on Dec. 8, 1941, the day after Pearl Harbor.
Goalkeeper, WWII Iron Cross winner Bert Trautmann to be honoured before England match
Legendary German goalkeeper and World War II veteran Bert Trautmann, who celebrated his 85th birthday, will be the DFB guest of honour at friendly against England in Berlin. The ex-Manchester City goalkeeper, who helped the club win the 1956 FA Cup final in spite of suffering a broken neck, will get a special German Football Federation (DFB) honour before the match. Born in Bremen in 1923, Trautmann joined the Luftwaffe, served as a paratrooper and fought on the Eastern Front for 3 years where he earned 5 military medals including an Iron Cross. Only 90 of his 1000-strong regiment survived the war.
18-year-old Olympic athlete Helen Stephens: Adolf Hitler pinched my bottom
Adolf Hitler was so impressed by the sprinter Helen Stephens, who had pondered whether she should withdraw in protest at Nazi treatment of Jews, that he met her after the race. "He comes in and gives me the Nazi salute. I gave him a good, old-fashioned Missouri handshake... He gets hold of my fanny and begins to squeeze and pinch, and hug me up. And he said: -- You`re a true Aryan type. You should be running for Germany.-- So after he gave me the once over and a full massage, he asked me if I`d like to spend the weekend in Berchtesgaden." Stephens, whom it later emerged was a closet lesbian, declined.
The Death Match - Dynamo Kiev vs. the Nazis
In 1942, as the Nazi forces advanced through Eastern Europe on search for the living space, they came to the Ukraine. The Wehrmacht rolled into the city of Kiev with little resistance. It was here that Major General Eberhardt decided on a plan to appease the people of Kiev. His idea was to set up a soccer match between a German team and Ukranian Champions Dynamo Kiev. Despite not having trained for many months because of the war the Ukranians skill shone through - during this first match things did not go as Eberhardt had planned. Eberhardt`s superiors wanted re-match, against a stronger Nazi select team.
Hitler`s Tree - Where is Canada`s only Olympic oak?
They`ve been described as the most bizarre prizes in the history of the Games: oak seedlings, potted and presented as a "gift of the German people" to each of the 130 gold-medal winners at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin. These "Olympic Oaks" - called "Hitler Trees" - were proudly accepted by champions and taken to their home countries and planted as living symbols of the Olympic spirit. A rare few still grow at sites as widespread as the Netherlands, NZ, Argentina and Jesse Owens` high school practice field in Cleveland. But what happened to Canada`s only Olympic oak - won by Frank Amyot - is a mystery.
Olympic athlete John Lysak recalls Adolf Hitler`s 1936 Games in Berlin
John Lysak`s hand once shook the hand of Jesse Owens - unlike the hand of Adolf Hitler, who ignored Owens. "I saw it happen," Lysak said. Hitler walked down from his seat to take part in the ceremony after Owens had won a gold medal. But after Hitler warmly greeted the German athletes, he ignored the African-American. "I asked him about it. He told me that the snub didn`t hurt his feelings because as a black man, that kind of thing had been going on his whole life [in United States]." Lysak, just 21, didn`t realize the implications of the Nazi banners all over Berlin. "Everybody was wearing a uniform: whether it was a military uniform or a scout uniform... or whatever."
Euro 2008 finals stadium: Anschluss Spiel, Nazi barracks, Gestapo prison
When 50,000 fans fill Vienna`s Ernst Happel Stadium to watch the Euro 2008 final, they won`t be thinking about the stadium`s sinister place in history. In the 1930s the stadium served as a Nazi barracks and then as a prison where Jews were held before being moved to concentration camps. After Nazi Germany`s annexation of Austria (March 12 1938) the stadium would host the "Anschluss Spiel" ("annexation match") between the countries` football teams. In September 1939 the stadium was claimed by the Gestapo to be used as a temporary prison, before 1,038 were shipped to the Buchenwald.
Germany lists sporting legends, including members of the Nazi Party
Germany has set up a pantheon of 40 sporting heroes. Critics say some athletes were members of the Nazi party - like Gustav Kilian and Sepp Herberger - but the organizers claim that the Hall of Fame reflects the German history. Hans Wilhelm Gäb told: "We were aware from the start of the problem of choosing top athletes who were associated with... the Nazi regime." The list also includes 2 victims of the Nazis: Werner Seelenbinder and Albert Richter, who angered the regime by refusing to wear the swastika on his shirt and who is thought to have been murdered by the Gestapo in 1939 while trying to leave Nazi Germany.
The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936 at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum
The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum`s "The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936" -show serves as an alternative intro into Holocaust. By going in-depth into just one event during Adolf Hilter`s Nazi Germany, it provides an engaging view on the Third Reich and its machinations 6 years before the Final Solution. And by discussing an athletic event, the exhibition revolves around a recognizable subject. Half of the exhibition regards the issues that surrounded the world just before the Olympics, including a talk on the Nazification of German sports and how some athletic clubs excluded non-Aryans.
The relay of Olympic torch ignited by the Nazis
To know how the Olympic torch began its "Journey of Harmony" look to the Leni Riefenstahl`s film "Olympia" (homage to Berlin`s 1936 Olympic Games). Never before had a torch been relayed from a Greek temple in Olympia to an athletic competition. This passing of the torch shows a lineage of inheritance, a historical relay, making Nazi Germany the heir to Ancient Greece. "In 1940, the Olympic Games will take place in Tokyo. But thereafter they will take place in Germany for all time to come," Adolf Hitler told Albert Speer, who was to build a 400,000-seat stadium in Nuremberg as the Olympics` permanent place.
Study clears Hertha Berlin of strong Nazi links during Third Reich era
Hertha Berlin, who play at Berlin`s Olympic Stadium, was not heavily linked to Adolf Hitler`s Nazi party during the Third Reich era, claims a study by professor Daniel Koerfer. Report shows the huge majority of players stayed away from the Nazi party and nearly all the club`s 400 members did not sympathise with the Nazi regime. But several leading figures became party members and collaborated with the Nazis, often to protect the club. Hertha president Bernd Schiphorst says the club is still often connected with the Nazi era because of their links to the stadium built by Hitler`s chief architect Albert Speer.
World War II museum exhibit honors baseball
Vvintage photographs of Herb "Briefcase" Simpson will be on display at the National World War II Museum, along with 100 other artifacts and photographs, as part of a new exhibit, "When Baseball Went to War." Simpson will also be part of a panel at a 3-day conference, bringing together historians, authors and many of the living baseball players who went to war in the 1940s. Included will be Bob Feller, Jerry Coleman, Johnny Pesky, Dom DiMaggio, Morrie Martin and Lou Brissie. They will explore the significance and role of America`s national pastime in an era of unparalleled tension and trauma.
Studying World War II`s effect on baseball (Article no longer available from the original source)
World War II historians such as Gregory Lalire have taken due note of baseball`s difficulties during the Second World War. Once the conflict began for Uncle Sam on Dec. 7, 1941, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had to decide whether it would be wise to allow the National Pastime to continue. "Roosevelt gave baseball the green light on Jan. 15, 1942, in a reply to baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis, who had asked about baseball`s wartime status." American`s first full year of the war, 1941-1942, did not severely affect the majors, but by 1944 the game`s quality deteriorated as players enlisted or were drafted into the armed forces.
Adolf Hitler`s Olympic oak gift to British Harold Whitlock axed
Along with gold medals, the champions of the 1936 Olympics in Berlin were presented with an oak sapling by Führer Adolf Hitler. Many of the 130 oaks disappeared, but others were planted in the athletes` home towns. Among them was the tree won by the British walker Harold Whitlock which took root at his old school in London. For 70 years it stood giving shade to children as `Hitler Oak` - until last month the tree was chopped down. Ross Whitlock said: "Hitler was in the stadium when my father came in at the end of the race, and apparently Hitler jumped up and applauded... I say to people sometimes `Hitler applauded my father`. It`s a conversation stopper."
Nazi Games - The Olympics of 1936 by David Clay Large
The 1936 Olympics had been awarded to Berlin before Adolf Hitler came to power. As soon as he did, Jews began to be expelled from German sports clubs. A movement began to call for a boycott, but one man who rose to the occasion was president of the American Olympic Committee Avery Brundage. He was determined that the Berlin Olympics should go ahead, and protest - which he privately attributed to Jewish agitation - only hardened his resolve. To Brundage`s delight, the Berlin Games did go ahead, even after Nazi Germany reoccupied the Rhineland in March 1936 and the Spanish Civil War broke out in July.
1936: Owens spoils Adolf Hitler`s day at the races
1936 should have been an eye-opener for Adolf Hitler. His view of the world was based on the premise that the Aryan race was superior in every way: culturally, intellectually and physically. Indeed, the chance to display the physical superiority of Aryans was the reason that Hitler promoted the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. Propaganda minister Josef Goebbels persuaded him that the Games could serve as a showcase for the superiority of the Nazi system. When the Games opened, banners bearing the Nazi swastika were everywhere. Then, confounding Hitler`s theories on race, a black member of the U.S. team won four gold medals at the Games.
Banned football scores of Guernsey`s Nazi occupation era fetch £900
A set of football results that two men risked death to produce during Guernsey`s Nazi occupation has sold for £900 at a UK auction. They would have faced execution if the banned typewritten document was found. Brookes said football memorabilia usually attracted people in search of unique items. "But this must rank as the rarest set of football results ever produced," he said.
WWII captives of Nazis made baseball bat and ball from scratch (Article no longer available from the original source)
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and the US entered WWII, Thuermer was rounded up by the Gestapo with other U.S. journalists and diplomats still in Germany. On December 14, 1941, more than a hundred Americans gathered at the U.S. Embassy in Berlin, by then guarded inside and out by members of the Gestapo. They were taken to Bad Nauheim and interned. -- "We wrapped tape around the cork, then a sock, then more tape, another sock and more tape. Then we took the ball out to the field. The military attaché said, With this ball, even Babe Ruth couldn`t hit more than a double." The U.S. internees formed two teams: newsmen versus the diplomats.
The Hitler Cup trophy has turned up in Glasgow
The Hitler Cup, one of sport`s most unusual trophies, has turned up in a businessman`s display case in Glasgow, solving one of golf`s strangest mysteries. The Hitler Cup was commissioned by the Fuhrer and was to be presented to the winners of an amateur international tournament in the spa town of Baden-Baden immediately after the Berlin Olympics in 1936.