The Third Reich -- Overview of the Nazi Germany and the best books covering the rise and fall of the Third Reich.
Latest hand-picked WWII news. See also: Wehrmacht, Waffen SS, Daily Life in Third Reich, Women in Nazi Germany, Third Reich in Ruins.
Classic turn-based strategy games: Conflict-Series
If you like classic turn-based PC war games and legendary strategy board games make sure to check out the highly rated Conflict-series for Android. Some of the WWII Campaigns include Axis Balkan Campaign, D-Day 1944, Operation Barbarossa, France 1940, Kursk 1943, Market Garden, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, Rommel's North African campaign, and the Battle of Bulge. In addition to WWII some other time periods include Korean War, American Civil War, First World War and American Revolutionary War. The more complex campaigns like Operation Sea Lion, Invasion of Norway, and Invasion of Japan 1945, include Naval element and handling logistics of supply flow.
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Book Review: The Oxford Illustrated History of the Third Reich
New Perspectives on the Rise and Fall of the Nazi State. Professor Gellately who has written extensively on European totalitarianism, opens this volume with an introduction in which he notes that historians “continue raising questions about the Third Reich, because of the unprecedented nature of its crimes, and the military aggression it unleashed”. Gellately then lays out the principal themes of the book: the centrality of Hitler to Nazism and the Third Reich, how Hitler and the Nazis leveraged democratic institutions in their rise to power, the Nazi “social vision”, and the importance of war and empire to its realization.
Travelers in the Third Reich examines outsiders` views of Nazi Germany
Similar books have been attempted before, but this one stands out due to both its the breadth of its investigation and the palpable tone of frustration that runs through it.
New History of Nazi Germany the Last Word on the Third Reich
Childers details how important rituals, rallies, propaganda and symbols were to establishing and showcasing Nazi power to the public at large, even at a time when the realities were far less secure. In a true ascent based on a cult of personality, Childers writes, Hitler would also build his case that he and only he could `make Germany great again` as he built something of a dream team of followers around him with names like Himmler and Goebbels and Strasser. The swastika symbol was seen everywhere – even on children`s toys. And the party encouraged regular Germans to replace the friendly greeting `Gutentag` with `Heil Hitler` before jutting the arm out in salute.
Rare photos of everyday life in the Third Reich 1933-1945
These photos show how looked `normal` life in Nazi Germany existed from 1933 to 1945.
Konrad Morgen prosecuted his fellow Nazis, but not for the Final Solution. How should history judge him?
Georg Konrad Morgen was the first man to prosecute commandants of the Nazi concentration camps, but he wasn`t an officer of war-crimes tribunals. He was himself a German SS officer, and he prosecuted his fellow SS officers in SS courts during the Second World War. Morgen charged them not with crimes against humanity but with ordinary crimes of corruption and murder. While investigating those crimes, he came upon the machinery of mass murder at Auschwitz-Birkenau and, recoiling in horror, he asked himself what he could do about it.
The Third Reich in History and Memory by Richard J Evans
Thirty to 40 years ago, historians argued about whether Nazism was the horrific outcome of some twisted path to modernity that distinguished Germany from other western societies. For subscribers to this view, Hitler`s dictatorship was traceable to the failure of liberalism in the 1848 revolution, the power of aristocratic elites, Prussian militarism, a politically deferential middle class and the way all these factors combined to undermine the 1919-33 Weimar Republic. As Richard Evans observes, these arguments have not stood the test of time. As a result, many ask different questions about Nazi Germany. What is the relevance of Germany`s shortlived experience as a colonial power to the Nazi era? Was the Holocaust fundamentally little different from other modern genocides?
Swedish documentary examines the Third Reich`s notion of perfection and beauty
Frankly, the parade is exquisite. The marchers wear clean, crisp uniforms. They hold their banners high. Enormous sculptures of horses and men loom over the procession. It`s footage from German Arts Day—in 1939. A march in celebration of the Nazi aesthetic. `The government—half of which consists of men who once aspired to serve the arts—is conscious of the artist`s role as an intermediary,` the narrator says, quoting famed Nazi literati Hans-Friedrich Blunck. The footage plays at the beginning of Architecture of Doom, a 1989 Swedish documentary from writer-director Peter Cohen that explores Hitler`s idea of beauty—and the terrible things he would do to realize it.
Hitler`s Furies: German Women in the Nazi Killing Fields by Wendy Lower
Wendy Lower`s account of the women who volunteered to work for Hitler in the new German empire to the east is a chilling WWII book. --- Where did the best career opportunities lie for an ambitious young woman in Germany in 1941? In the Red Cross? The army? Or, perhaps, the Gestapo (40% staffed by women)? No, the best prospects lay in the Ostraum, the new German empire to the east, where 10,000 secretaries were needed, plus countless teachers and nurses. There you could not only get ahead but escape the tiresome constraints of home life in provincial Germany, and perhaps live out your fantasies. But you might also become an accessory to genocide. Hitler`s Furies interweaves the experiences of 13 ordinary women who went to work in the East.
Dead Funny - Telling Jokes in Hitler`s Germany (includes 7 jokes)
Almost everyone has heard of classic films such as Charlie Chaplin`s "The Great Dictator" and Mel Brooks` post-war satire "The Producers," both of which poke fun at the Nazis. What is less known is that hundreds of political jokes circulated within the Third Reich itself. Some of the most interesting ones can be found in a book "Dead Funny - Telling Jokes in Hitler`s Germany". They give a rare glimpse of what was going on in the Germans` hearts and minds during this darkest chapter of their history.
Suicide in the Third Reich - Countless from leading Nazis to ordinary citizens took their life in 1945
The wave of suicides among Nazi party leaders and army generals at the end of WWII was triggered by fear of Soviet reprisals, reveals a new book called "Suicide in the Third Reich". As a reich meant to last 1,000 years imploded, the hierarchy of the Nazi party began preparing for its doom. Propaganda chief Josef Goebbels died along with his wife Magda, who poisoned their six children. SS overlord Heinrich Himmler killed himself by biting on his cyanide capsule after being captured. Luftwaffe chief Hermann Goering took the same way out before he was to be hanged at Nuremberg; so did labour chief Robert Ley, with 8 regional Nazi gauleiters. Added to those were 53 generals, and thousands of minor Nazi bureaucrats – and Hitler himself. The knock-on effect on ordinary people reached its zenith in April 1945 when 3,381 Berliners took their own lives.
How 8 famous Americans experienced Nazi Germany - JFK: Nordic races certainly seem superior to the Latins
John F. Kennedy took off for Europe in the summer of 1937 after his freshman year at Harvard, noting that along the Rhine the attractive towns showed that "Nordic races certainly seem superior to the Latins." The black American sociologist and historian W.E.B. Dubois, who spent nearly six months in the Third Reich in 1935 and 1936, reported that he was treated "with uniform courtesy and consideration," never encountering the kinds of personal insults or racist discrimination that were commonplace in the United States.
Hitlerland: American Eyewitnesses to the Nazi Rise to Power by Andrew Nagorski
Following the Reichstag fire and the suspension of civil liberties provisions in the Weimar constitution in 1933, journalist Dorothy Thompson gave voice to her frustration: "I keep thinking what could be done. I feel myself starting to hate Germany... If only someone would speak." Thompson`s sense of urgency was not shared by most American journalists, expats, artists, politicians and diplomats who visited the Third Reich during Hitler`s rise to power. "There were those who saw what was coming and those who were blind to it until the very last moment," explains author Andrew Nagorski.
Related article: Andrew Nagorski interviewed about Hitlerland.
Nazis were not evil, they were social climbers, claims German historian GÃ¶tz Aly
A German inferiority complex allied to a lust to "get on" led to the country`s moral collapse which allowed the Holocaust to happen, a new book called "Why The Germans? Why The Jews?" claims. Historian Götz Aly says their berserk social climbing led the ordinary people to partake in the plunder of the Jews without troubling their consciences. The central thesis is that the Holocaust happened "because people like you and me allowed it to." It was the middle class fear of coming down in the world following defeat in WWI, the hyper-inflation and joblessness of the Weimar years, that allowed people to blind themselves to the excesses of the Nazis as they pledged to restore Germany to greatness.
The End: Hitler`s Germany, 1944-45 by Ian Kershaw (book review)
"Enjoy the war, the peace will be much worse," went the black joke of Berliners in 1945. "The End" is the best attempt so far to answer the question of why Nazi Germany carried on fighting to total self-destruction. Kershaw begins with a true story: As American troops approach the town of Ansbach, a boy who hopes to save his town from destruction is condemned to death by the Nazi commandant. The town is bound to fall, and the Nazi colonel himself escapes afterwards. Why do the Germans continue to obey orders not just in the face of common humanity, but also self-interested logic?
Hitler planned a chain of huge resorts accommodating 20,000 holidaying Nazis at a time
WWII-era files discovered in the state archive of Greifswald in Germany reveal German plans for a chain of resorts accommodating 20,000 holidaying Nazis at a time were. The papers outline plans by Dr Robert Ley - the Nazi head of the German Labour Front Kraft durch Freude ("Strength Through Joy") - to provide low-cost holidays for the average German worker in the Prora resort, which is located on the Baltic island of Ruegen.
850 books about the Third Reich emerged in 2010 (Listen 30-minute BBC podcast: Nazi Gold - Publishing the Third Reich)
If you want your book to sell well, how about putting a swastika on the front cover. An impressive 850 books about the Third Reich were published in 2010, up from 350 in the year 2000. The ceaseless success of books about the Nazis includes fiction, non-fiction and science fiction. Topics seem to cover everything: the occult and the Nazis, Nazi weaponry, Nazi doctors, the history of SS uniforms, SS staff cars, the exploitation of Nazi scientific discoveries by America, adventures with the Panzer Division, SS recruitment and propaganda.
Direct link to the 30-minute BBC podcast: Nazi Gold - Publishing the Third Reich.
Documentary film Third Reich: The Rise and Fall premieres on History on December 14/15 (Article no longer available from the original source)
"Third Reich: The Rise and Fall", 4-hour miniseries airing on History on December 14/15, tells the story of the Third Reich from the German perspective, taking viewers on tour inside the Nazi Germany in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s with rarely seen private home movies, Nazi propaganda footage and other contemporary material. The narrative consists of personal recollections from Germans` diaries, journals and letters.
Study of the German Finance Ministry: Confiscations financed 30% of the costs of the Nazi invasions
Historians working on the study of the German Finance Ministry under the Nazis 1933-1945 have discovered evidence of how the Third Reich`s tax authorities ruined Jews and financed up to 30% of expenditure of the German armed forces.
Third Reich`s Foreign Ministry deeply involved in Holocaust -- claims 880-page report "The Office and the Past"
Nazi Foreign Ministry was a "criminal organization" that was much more involved in the atrocities than previously believed, says a group of historians. "The Foreign Ministry actively supported all measures of persecution," stated Eckart Conze. "The Office and the Past" -report was written by Conze, Norbert Frei, Peter Hayes and Moshe Zimmermann. In one of the found documents the official in charge of Jews, Franz Rademacher, justified why he had to travel to Belgrade: "Liquidation of Jews." In addition the post-war chancellor Konrad Adenauer kept many of the Nazi diplomats involved in the Holocaust on staff.
Revealed: The lightweight reading choices of the Nazi leaders and popular books in the Third Reich
While the Nazi leaders posed as intellectuals reading tomes about race, culture and war, their aides reveal how they only ever saw "entertainments" stacked in studies or on bedside tables. Luftwaffe chief Hermann Goering liked Jules Verne, while Hitler favoured the works of Karl May. SS boss Heinrich Himmler read Jules Verne, Jack London, Hermann Hesse and Alexander Dumas. Christian Adam - who researched the reading habits of the Nazi elite for his book "Reading under Hitler: Authors, Best-sellers and Readers in the Third Reich" - says the popularity of escapist literature grew as the war went on.
The Nazis` attempt to control Germany`s Carnival
Germany`s Carnival is about anarchic fun and mocking those in power - and the Nazis tried to harness the festivities for their own ends. Anti-Semitic floats and speeches attacking the Third Reich`s enemies were common, and defiance was rare. It was Rose Monday in Cologne and the festivities for the 1934 Carnival were afoot. Of the many floats taking part in the parade, one featured a group of men dressed up as orthodox Jews with banner: "The Last Ones Are Leaving." It was one of the many expressions of anti-Semitism marking the German Carnival season during the years before World War Two.
Germany rehabilitates Third Reich era `traitors` and `deserters`
The German parliament voted to lift Nazi-era convictions of World War II "traitors" whose names, 70 years after the war started, had still not been cleared. The law ended the decades-long campaign for justice for those who turned their backs on Adolf Hitler`s Wehrmacth. Nazi military tribunals sentenced 30,000 people to death for desertion or treason (20,000 were executed). 100,000 men were sentenced to prison. All who survived had a criminal record, and trouble finding work in the postwar years - even facing death threats for "betrayal of the Fatherland." In Austria campaigners are still seeking the cancellation of the verdicts of the Nazis` military tribunals.
Third Reich signatures - Leading Nazis, generals...
This Axis History forum -thread features scores of Third Reich era signatures from notable individuals.
1938: Hitler’s Gamble by Giles MacDonogh [book review]
When the year 1938 started, the Führer was safely in his box. Apart from the reoccupations of the Rhineland and Saar he had not been overly aggressive. Jews had been persecuted but not exterminated, political parties had been banned and Nazism`s enemies smothered – but no mass killings had taken place. For most Nazi Germany was a small cloud on a sunny European horizon. By the time the year ended, the picture was completely different. Hitler had occupied both Austria and the Sudetenland. At home the Kristallnacht had pointed the way for the Holocaust ahead; and Nazi Germany’s Armed Forces were psyched and geared up for an imminent war.
Nazi file from 1944 outlines the Fourth Reich as united European economical power
US Military Intelligence report EW-Pa 128, AKA the Red House Report, is an account of a secret meeting at the Maison Rouge Hotel in Strasbourg on August 10, 1944. There, Nazi officials (led by SS Obergruppenfuhrer Dr Scheid in his tailored grey-green uniform) ordered German industrialists to plan for Germany`s postwar recovery, prepare for the Nazi Party`s return to power and work for a strong German empire. The industrialists (like Volkswagen, Krupp and Messerschmitt) were to work with the Nazi Party to rebuild Germany`s economy by setting up secret front companies abroad. And the Fourth Reich would not a military empire, but an economic empire.
Nazi walking tours in Munich: Travelling to Germany to explore ruins of the Third Reich
3 tour guides are standing next to each other in Munich, but only one of them is doing well: Jeff Cox, who is offering "Third Reich Tour. Munich Walk Tours in English." The Third Reich in Munich. That means Hitler, Göring, Gestapo, SS. Cox soon has 18 tourists: Nazis always sell. One of the tourists is Alan Stark, who has read 7 Adolf Hitler biographies, but he still listens closely Cox`s stories. Stark travelled to Germany for 6 days, so he has to focus on what`s essential. Day 1: Nuremberg, the site of the Nazi party rallies. Day 2: Berchtesgaden, Hitler`s mountain retreat. Day 3: Munich, Third Reich tour. Day 4: Bayreuth. "Parsifal," 5 hours of Wagner.
Hermann Goering as a pin-up: The German women`s magazines mixed fashion and Fascism
With WW2 recipes and fashion, it seems to offer a diverting read for housewives. But a clue to the sinister aims of this women`s magazine lies in the choice of cover model: Hermann Goering. The Nazis wanted more than just entertain Third Reich women. Each issue of Frauen Warte (Women Wait) included articles full of propaganda. The cover photo from February 1940 shows Luftwaffe boss Goering cuddling baby daughter Edda in a warped version of the kind of `tough but sensitive man` images frequently seen today. Frauen Warte, the Nazi Party`s biweekly magazine for women, published 1935-1945, and in 1939 it had a circulation of 1.9million.
Analyzing Nazi ideology - Hitler, Anti-Communism, attacking the Bolsheviks
When talking about Adolf Hitler, Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, most historians understate the role of Nazi ideology, says history professor Robert Gellately - the keynote speaker at the 29th annual Holocaust Conference. when Hitler returned from WW1 he was trained as an anti-Bolshevik speaker. His rejection of communism was strengthened by what he saw in the Bolshevik Revolution: class conflict and seizure of property. "Mein Kampf" (1933) was filled with his ideologies of nationalism, a drive for living space in the East. Once in power Hitler and the Nazi party first attacked communism, with camps designed to hold communists. "These camps were popular."
The Third Reich At War 1939–1945 by Richard J. Evans -- Book review
Richard Evans has no doubt that Adolf Hitler was, as he put it in his second volume of his history of Nazi Germany, "in the driving seat". Traditionalists have not focused on the self-destructive quality of Führer`s decisions, but on the conduct of the war against the Red Army. Evans shows that Hitler`s military decisions (like delaying the assault on Moscow in 1941, pulling out of the Battle of Kursk) were not especially irrational - as the German generals did not have much better plans... And the latest German enquiry reveals that the Battle of Kursk was a pyrrhic victory, in which Soviet losses were 6-10 times those of the Nazis.
Book review: Life and Death in the Third Reich by Peter Fritzsche
"Life and Death in the Third Reich" depicts such a nuanced and well researched portrait of German National Socialism that in the end it`s not enough to call the Nazis architects of death. The political wave they rode in on was something of a phenomenon. The key question is the extent to which Germans allowed the rise of Nazism and the Holocaust and whether they deserve some blame. So, what did everyday Germans know? They knew of the mass segregation and deportation of Jews - but Germans saw that not as a program, but instead in the context of war`s brutality - as inevitable frontline fatalities alongside the German soldiers who were also dying by the thousands.
German fanaticism in WWII - Part 10 of Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg
Monumental war history "Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg" (The German Reich and the Second World War) by the German military history unit MGFA has been finished, after 30 years. Part 10 explores why Nazi Germany fought on 1944-1945, defying all military logic, to the bitter end. The government-funded military historians wanted to know about the mindset that drove their grandfathers` generation. To the very end, the Nazi regime wanted Germans to recite their belief in "ultimate victory." The volume describes the German military fighting on 1944-1945 under mottoes like "for honor" and "for the fatherland," thinking they were "doing their duty."
Hitler`s Empire: How the Nazis Ruled Europe by Mark Mazower
Adolf Hitler`s Europe has been described as everything from the last European land-based empire to a forerunner of the EU. This reveals the varying nature and short duration of Nazi rule. The Greater German Reich didn`t last long enough to settle the ambiguities that characterised Nazi rule. Hitler`s interpreter noted: "The Nazis kept talking about a Thousand Year Reich but they couldn`t think ahead for more than 5 minutes." In 1940 Hitler ordered German generals to prepare the invasion of the Soviet Union. The food and raw materials, plus the oil, would enable Nazi Germany to achieve world domination.
75th anniversary of the 1933 Nazi book burnings
The ceremonial burning of books written by Jews, communists and "degenerates" on May 10, 1933 happened less than 4 months after Adolf Hitler came to power. Germany is hosting a series of lectures, exhibitions and readings to mark the 75th anniversary of the offensive event. Actors and authors read from the works of some of the 130-odd authors whose works went up in flames. But while the works of many of the targeted authors are still popular, others like Maria Leitner and Georg Hermann have been forgotten. This shows that in some ways the book burning had a long-term effect, says Olaf Zimmermann.
Nazi Atrocities, Committed by Ordinary People
From doctors to opera singers, teachers to schoolkids, the liquidation of Jews was the work of 200,000 ordinary Germans and their helpers. Years of research, not yet complete, disclose how sane members of a modern society committed murder for an evil regime. The researchers found that the perpetrators were both committed Nazis and people who had nothing to do with the Nazis. Most were never punished. Americans did a poll in occupation zone in Oct. 1945: 20% "agreed with Hitler`s treatment of the Jews." 19% felt that his policies toward Jews were exaggerated, but fundamentally correct.
75 Years Ago, Reichstag Fire hastened Adolf Hitler`s power grab
Fire broke out in the German parliament on Feb. 27, 1933. It was blamed on Dutch communist Marinus van der Lubbe, caught outside the building. He admitted to the act, stating he single-handedly wanted to take revenge on capitalism. However Prussian Interior Minister Hermann Goering called the event the first act in a planned communist uprising. Lead by police chief Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorf, who headed a section of SA storm-troopers, police arrested many Communist Party members. Historians still disagree whether van der Lubbe acted alone, or if the Communist Party or Nazi Party (NSDAP) set the blaze.
800-Page German dictionary warns against words used by Third Reich
Certain German words have for decades been taboo for native speakers because of the way those words were used by the Nazis. Now, an 800-page dictionary serves as a guidebook to avoid traps into which Germans can fall. Terms such as "endloesung" (final solution) or "selektion" (selection) can get the user into trouble, because the words got particular associations during the Third Reich. "Lager" (camp) refers to the concentration camps. The "Woerterbuch der Vergangenheitsbewaeltigung" (Dictionary of Coming to Terms With the Past) studies about 1,000 words - from "Anschluss," the "annexation" of Austria in 1938, to "Wehrmacht," the Nazi-era armed forces.
Lebensborn: The war children of a nazi eugenics scheme speak out
They were the blue-eyed blonds born into an ominous SS scheme to further the Aryan race. But the defeat of the Nazi Germany left Norway`s `Lebensborn` (the spring of life) facing the payback of an entire nation. Here, 5 war children speak about their ordeal: and their fight for compensation. The Lebensborn Society was born on 12 Dec. 1935, the brainchild of Heinrich Himmler. He had planned a project to promote an "Aryan future" for the Third Reich and turn around a falling birth rate. People were given motivators to have more children in the Fatherland, and also in occupied countries, like in Scandinavia, where the Nordic gene was regarded Aryan.
Third Reich to Fortune 500: 5 Popular Brands the Nazis Gave Us
Hugo Boss made the sleek all-black uniforms for the SS. While today Boss uses black for slimming effects, in the SS uniforms it was used to command fear. While their guns and tendency for genocide probably handled all needed respect commanding just fine, the black uniforms did absorb sunlight during the summer, causing the wearer to stink. Members of the Hitler Youth were also decked out in Boss wear: an early lesson in looking good when beating up minorities. -- American groups funded Nazi eugenics projects in the 1930s, but once the war began, most cut ties, except IBM which decided to stick around and see where Hitler was going with this final solution thing.
Study examines Nazi gender ideology: Rapes under Third Reich
A study on Nazi gender ideology has found that when sentencing Nazi soldiers convicted of raping, the Third Reich courts were influenced by what was considered normative behavior - not by the damage done to the victim. Based on files from the military tribunal in Freiburg, Monika Flaschka found that in cases of assault on girls whose conduct was considered normative, soldiers were given harsher sentences than in cases of assault on girls who had evinced sexual curiosity. She will present her findings at the 4th conference on women and the Holocaust, this time titled "Childhood and Youth under the Third Reich - A Gender Perspective."
Hitler`s Beneficiaries: The economic workings of the Third Reich
Hitler’s Beneficiaries caused a controversy because Götz Aly called his wartime countrymen "well-fed parasites" - depicting German working class as the beneficiaries of egalitarian welfare policies that were funded by Hitler’s conquests. Wartime separation payments to soldiers’ wives were so generous (at 85% of the husband’s earnings, compared with 38% in UK) that many working-class women could give up factory work. Aly shows the crushing costs that the Nazis imposed on occupied regions: Belgium’s state revenue was 11-16 billion francs per annum; the Nazis levied 25 billion a year, as well as stealing 18,500 vehicles and 41 tons of gold reserves.
Third Reich Life: Hitler-Era Vacationland - Posters from before WWII
Posters give an eerie glimpse of life in Fascist Germany before WWII. Baltic seaside idyll of a 1941 brochure: A beach with wicker chairs, tourists relaxing in the sun. A swastika flutters over everything, on a flagpole. Another brochure has a photo of Germans exercising in rows on the beach. The North Sea island of Sylt 1937: "Beach games and athletic activities of all kinds - in particular the old Teutonic art of archery - will reawaken your joy of living." Thousands of Germans managed under Nazism to afford their first vacations - by Kraft durch Freude ("Strength Through Joy") organization. Foreign tourism increased in Nazi Germany until the 1938 Kristallnacht pogrom.
America inspired Third Reich - Nazis learned about Zyklon B from US
A book by a Mexican-American historian documents how the Nazis were inspired by what the U.S. had been doing to their Mexican neighbours since 1917. In Ringside at the Revolution: An Underground Cultural History of El Paso and Juarez, David Dorado Romo establishes the US Immigration Department`s brutality. Mexican visitors were forced to strip naked and subjected to screening (for low IQ, physical deformities like `clubbed fingers`) and to disinfection with various toxic fumigants, including gasoline, kerosene, sulfuric acid DDT and, after 1929, Zyklon-B (hydrocyanic acid) - the same gas used in the nazi death camps.
Third Reich art - Nazi Party funded artwork
The National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) was addicted to massive artistic displays to an extent that it still far surpasses the small budget for "arts" we earmark in the US. Millions of Reichsmarks were levied on stadiums, paintings, plays, broadcasts and movies. Adolf Hitler had instructed Albert Speer to transform Berlin into the cultural capital of Europe by what would have been the largest public works program in history. ...It created an odd schizophrenia where movies like "Snow White" or "The Virginian" competed in the same theaters with "Triumph of the Will" and jazz bands strained against the "Horst Wessel Song".
Werner Maser - Historian of the Third Reich (Article no longer available from the original source)
Military historian Werner Maser, who served as an infantry officer in World War Two, was best known for his 1971 study of Hitler, Adolf Hitler: Legende, Mythos, Wirklichkeit ("Hitler: legend, myth and reality"). The volume was just part of a long study of the Third Reich which included not only the Nazi leader, but also his nazi party, the Nuremberg trials, German-Soviet relations and much more. Finally, in 2004, he produced "Falsification, Fiction and the Truth about Hitler and Stalin" in which he advanced the view that Red Army was poised to attack Nazi Germany at the time of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.
How Green Were the Nazis? Environment in the Third Reich
It is true that Adolf Hitler and his crew were A-number-one landscape-impacters. London got plenty impacted by the Nazis` environmental outreach program, as did cities like Leningrad, Stalingrad, Dresden, and Berlin. To be fair, I did learn a lot from book "How Green Were the Nazis". I already knew that Adolf Hitler was a vegetarian with a taste for nonalcoholic beer, but I didn`t know that SS boss Heinrich Himmler also eschewed meat or that Hermann Goering had a "sincere interest in forest conservation." Nazi party secretary Rudolf Hess was a devotee of organic gardening. Did you know that there was an organic herb garden at Dachau?
40% of germans think Third Reich had some positive aspects
Many germans hold unfavourable views about the Third Reich, according to a poll. 21% think Nazism was completely negative, while 40% think it had some positive aspects. Adolf Hitler became Germany’s chancellor in 1933, as the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). Hitler established a fascist regime, relied on propaganda, and attempted to expand Germany’s "living space." World War II began in Sept 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. The conflict killed more than 55 million. Following Hitler’s suicide, field marshall Alfred Jodl surrendered to the Allied forces in May 1945. Page includes stats from 1991 and 2007.
Royals and the Reich: The Princes von Hessen in Nazi Germany
The prince often dined with Hermann Goering. Adolf Hitler brightened at his sight. Extending his charm into the southern realms of Mussolini was wife Mafalda, daughter of the Italian king Vittorio Emmanuele III. Then their friends turned on them. In 1943, Philipp of Hessen was imprisoned in Flossenbuerg; Mafalda died in Buchenwald. Philipp`s brother Christoph died in a mysterious plane crash. Their stories are told in the book by Jonathan Petropoulos, including a photo of Christoph, looking smart in his SS uniform. Nobles who looked like Aryans might be useful to the Nazi elite. But what did the princes get out of the Nazis?
Adolf Hitler`s plundering helped Germans live the good life
How was it that "the majority of Germans bore virtually none of the costs" of "the most expensive war in world history"? According to the German historian Gotz Aly, "The Holocaust will never be properly understood until it is seen as the most single-mindedly pursued campaign of murderous larceny..." For Aly, the key word is "larceny." The mechanics and motives of Nazi plunder, he maintains in his study "Hitler`s Beneficiaries," have never been sufficiently examined. His emphasis is on the socialism in National Socialism, and historians have been arguing about it since 2005, when the book came out in Germany.
General Motors and FÃ¼hrer worship: Hitler`s carmaker - Part II (Article no longer available from the original source)
GM knew what was happening in Nazi Germany. Nonetheless, GM and Third Reich began a strategic relationship. Nazi Germany needed to rise above the horse-drawn divisions. GM Opel built the 3-ton truck named "Blitz" for the Blitzkrieg. In 1937, 17% of Blitz trucks were sold directly to the Nazi military, increasing to 29% in 1938. The Wehrmacht soon became Opel`s No. 1 customer by far. GM Opel participated in cultic Fuhrer worship as a part of its daily corporate ethic. Great swastika-bedecked company events were commonplace, as Nazi gauleiters spurred employees to work hard for the Fuhrer and his Thousand-Year Reich.
Ruegen island - Revamp of massive Kraft durch Freude building
On a corner of Ruegen island in the former east Germany stands building of massive proportions. Stretching nearly 3 miles along the coastline, it was built by Adolf Hitler to offer seaside holidays to strengthen and refresh (Kraft durch Freude) workers of the Third Reich. Its scale and cubic forms have made it an example of Third Reich architecture and a metaphor for Hitler`s quest for power. Now it has buyer, Ulrich Busch, the son of a 1920s anti-Nazi campaigner who fled from Nazi Germany. He plans to revamp the concrete hulk into flats - fulfilling the building`s initial purpose after some 70 years.
The Language of the Third Reich - classic from the Nazi era (Article no longer available from the original source)
Professor Victor Klemperer was removed from his post after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. His Diaries of the period were published in 1998. This work, first published in Germany in 1947, and issued in hardback in 2000, has been reprinted as a paperback. Klemperer realised that the Nazis were poisoning language - as it governs what people think and believe, this meant a systematic corruption of the culture in which Germans lived. Until the Third Reich "fanatical" always had a pejorative meaning; under Hitler it became a complimentary term. Words like "heroic" were always used in a vainglorious way and attached to a military uniform.
Interviews with SS Nazi officer who caused the deaths of 2711 (Article no longer available from the original source)
Paul Harker had to keep reminding himself: the old man sitting across the table was a monster. Rolf Otto Schiller did not look like one, and his banter about the weather diverted Harker from compiling the memoirs of a former Nazi SS officer. After the pleasantries Schiller`s demeanor would change. "Where did we leave off? When I ordered the liquidation of the Bialystok ghetto?" Schiller admits helping to implement the "Final Solution" by ordering the deaths of enemies of the Third Reich, and killing many of them himself. Accused of helping to slaughter more than 150,000 people, he was convicted for causing the deaths of 2,711. He served 30 years.
Book about humor under the Nazis in Third Reich
A book about humor under the Nazis gives insights into life in the Third Reich and breaks yet another taboo in Germany`s treatment of its history. Jokes were told quite openly in the yearly years of Third Reich era, but by the end of the war, a joke could get you killed. A Berlin munitions worker was convicted of undermining the war effort "through spiteful remarks" and executed in 1944 for telling this one: Hitler and Göring are standing on top of Berlin`s radio tower. Hitler says he wants to do something to cheer up the people of Berlin. "Why don`t you just jump?" suggests Göring.
On behalf of Third Reich: Shooting the first truckload of women
Walter Mattner wrote account of his activities as a policeman on behalf of the Third Reich. "When the first truckload arrived, my hand was slightly trembling when shooting. When the 10th load arrived, I was already aiming more calmly and shot securely at the many women, children and infants." Ferguson`s book "The War of the World" is not limited to horrors of the Third Reich and the Second World War, but that provides the bulk of the book. Tour of mayhem: Trenches of the WWI, the Turkish massacres: the first true genocide, a half of the Armenians were slaughtered, purges and gulags of the Soviet Union, and the cruelties of the Japanese empire.
Third Reich and Music - Nazi attempt to manipulate music
The exhibit "The Third Reich and Music" at the Neuhardenberg Castle Foundation features the Nazi attempt to manipulate music. Two hundred items, including letters, music scores, films and recordings make up the exhibit that illustrates how important music was in National Socialist Germany. The exhibit also shows how the Nazi regime’s music propaganda was contradictory. Monumental music was to accompany monumental projects – from grand-scale architecture to huge military parades. Richard Wagner and Anton Bruckner were Hitler’s favourite composers – their music laden with an ever increasing, slow build-up of glorious sounding, awe-inspiring crescendos.
The Third Reich in Power - A massive new history of Hitler`s tyranny
Looking at the books written about Hitler and the Third Reich, we note a discrepancy: Most non-German historians have devoted their main interests to Hitler`s war and crimes, 1939-1945. Most German historians have devoted their main interests to topics about the first 6 years, 1933-1939. In 1939 Hitler chose war, with the results of total defeat. But what led up to that? The Third Reich in Power is Richard J. Evans`s attempt to answer many of those questions through historical synthesis. The second part of this British historian`s 3-volume history of Nazi Germany is crammed with information.